By Gabriel Sottas, Inge L. Ryhming

The goal of the 1989 GAMM Workshop on 3D-Computation of Incompressible inner Flows was once the simulation of a pragmatic incompressible stream box in a massive commercial program. In view of the problems excited about formulating one of these try out case, requiring the supply of an experimental information base, severe care needed to be taken within the number of the correct one. Professor I. L. Ryhming's idea, that the movement via a Francis turbine configuration or components thereof will be possible as a try case, as a result of the numerical demanding situations in addition to the prospect to provide an experimental info base by utilizing the experimental amenities of the Hydraulic Machines and Fluid Mechanics Institute (IMHEF) on the Swiss Federal Institute of expertise in Lausanne (EPFL), used to be approved via the GAMM Committee in April 1987. a systematic committee, shaped less than the chairmanship of Professor I. L. Ryhming, met once or twice to settle on the Francis turbine configuration, the try case standards, and so on. , wherein the layout enter got here from the water turbine specialists. This committee made up our minds to limit the experiences to the 3 following ordinary functions for the simplest working aspect of the turbine: • simulation of the 3D stream in a Francis runner in rotation • simulation of the 3D move within the distributor (stay and advisor vane earrings) of this turbine • simulation of the 3D movement in an elbow draft tube The simultaneous computation of 2 or 3 of those geometries was once encouraged.

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Even though the accuracy of local velocity measurements can be improved, the experimental procedure provides an understanding of the flow conditions of hydraulic machines . ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors thanks all their colleagues and the technical staff of the IMHEF Test Rig. REFERENCE [1] HENRY, P. : "Hydraulic machine model acceptance tests", Proceedings of International Conference on Hydropower, Water Power '85, Las Vegas, 1985, vol. 2, pp. 1258-1267. 51 NOTATIONS C Absolute velocity [m-s-l] Cr Radial component of the absolute velocity [m-s-l] Cz=-Ca Axial component of the absolute velocity [m-s-l] Cu=Ca Peripheral component of the absolute velocity [m-s-l] E Specific hydraulic energy [I-kg-l] Ek Specific kinetic energy [I-kg-l] Eref Specific hydraulic energy [I_kg-l] F Calibration coefficient [-] G Calibration coefficient [- ] H Calibration coefficient [- ] Hs Suction Head I Measuring section at the inlet of the spiral casing [- ] i Measuring section at the outlet of the draft tube [- ] L Calibration coefficient [-] Q Flow rate R Radius Rie S Reference radius at runner outlet Surface [m2] Z Altitude em] c Velocity coefficient g Acceleration due to gravity nq Specific speed [-] p Static pressure [Pal Pa pm pi Atmospheric pressure [Pal [- ] Total pressure [Pal Pv Vapour pressure [Pal S2 Average pressure Zref - zi em] [m3-s- 1] em] em] [- ] [m-s- 2] .

47 [mm). The reason of requiring averaged values for the pressure coefficient and for the velocity components is the same as for Requirement 2. Requirement 4 c;, c~, c:, c;', a and fJ along the leading and the trailing edges of the blade versus the normalized arclength along the edge. { Ns' {Ie' {R, a, Z, s*, c;, c:, c~, c;, a, ~ INs he I Ns number of sections defining the blade (Le. number of points defining the leading or the trailing edge of the blade) indicator of the edge of the blade (which value belongs to the set ( leading, trailing )) { {R, a, zlNs he { {s*INs cylindrical coordinates of the blade edge points he normalized arclength corresponding to every blade edge point nonnalized pressure coefficient at each blade edge point nonnalized velocity components at each blade edge point absolute and relative flow angle corresponding to the velocity components Note that: Ns and { {R, 9, ZINs he are part of the given geometrical data.

Both the relative linear and angular positions are numerically read by optical shaft encoders mounted on the step motor shafts. To define an accurate origin for each axis of motion, electronic logic gates are used, firstly to rectify a contactless switch output and secondly to combine this output with the corresponding encoder signal output. The resulting signal is used to permit the resetting of the electronic counters. 2 " for the translational and the rotational motions, respectively. 2" is achieved in the probe positioning.