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By Bruce R. Doe

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Published through the yank Geophysical Union as a part of the Field journey Guidebooks Series.

This afternoon journey in downtown Washington, D.C., will let examine of toxins, structural, and other forms of wear and tear to constructions with emphasis on these built of good- to coarse-grained marble yet with representatives of limestone and pink sandstone. The journey will comprise so as of exam [date of labor initiated (i) and/or occupied (o.) and stone type]: the Renwick Museum (1859o., purple sandstone trim changed 1987), Corcoran Museum (1879c. enlarged 1927, coarse-grained marble), pink pass constructions (1915i.-1917o., 1927i., fine-grained marble), Memorial Continental corridor of the Daughters of the yankee Revolution, DAR (1904i.-1909o., fine-grained marble), Pan American Union development (1908i.-1910o., coarse-grained marble), structure corridor (DAR) (1929o., limestone), Washington Monument (1885o., marble), Jefferson Memorial (1943o., external of fine-grained marble), and Lincoln Memorial (1922o., very fine-grained marble). Coarse-grained marble is generally extra proof against toxins harm than fine-grained marble. Direct publicity to the weather hurries up degradation. the main serious toxins harm happens to balustrades and columns: runoff from bronze onto fine-grained marble may also reason critical degradation. Any type of overhang has a tendency to guard the underlying stone, yet exceptions should be noticeable on the Jefferson Memorial. generally, vertical partitions have much less toxins harm than horizontal surfaces which may start to express roughening inside of years of install. Limestone in universal use is strangely immune to degradation owing, not less than partly, to the porous nature of the stone that inhibits runoff. If one of many journeys is made to the Powell construction of the U.S. Geological Survey in Reston, Virginia (1974o., concrete), will probably be obvious that concrete behaves very similar to limestone and marble.

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73 Ga). 713 Ga) [Afifi, 1981; Wortman and Bicyord, 1990; Lafrance and John, 20011; 2) the emplacement of the Granite of South Beaver Creek at ca. , 20011. 3) Assembly to Laurentia stage. This stage involved the rotation, tightening and transposition of NW- to NS-trending F2 folds into isoclinal F3 folds with a strong subvertical axial planar S3 foliation in the Black Canyon shear zone during dextral shear. L2 lineations and F2 fold axes were rotated towards vertical in the highest strain zone. Strain was partitioned throughout the shear zone resulting in various degrees of fabric intensity and transposition.

G. , 19931, and may represent the deeper portions of now-crodcd granodiorites. g.

This stage involved the rotation, tightening and transposition of NW- to NS-trending F2 folds into isoclinal F3 folds with a strong subvertical axial planar S3 foliation in the Black Canyon shear zone during dextral shear. L2 lineations and F2 fold axes were rotated towards vertical in the highest strain zone. Strain was partitioned throughout the shear zone resulting in various degrees of fabric intensity and transposition. , 20011. NE-trending F3 folds in the Cochetopa and Dubois successions fold the southern end of the Iris syncline, South Beaver Creek, Gold Basin antiforms [AH, 1980; Shonk, 19841.

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