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By Alger F. Johns

This common grammar ebook of biblical Aramaic, utilized by scholars at many seminaries and universities, is the single one to incorporate graded workouts on the shut of every of its twenty classes.

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All of the occurrences of the Shaphel in BA are closely related t o (if n o t borrowed from) t h e Shaphel of Accadian (common in that language). (A) Shaphel: the sole occurrence in the Pe Yodh verbs is more apparent than real, for it comes from the Accadian sUzubu — usezib, the Shaphel of ezebu, which is cognate t o the B H aw, not ar; hence it can be listed in BA as a Pe Yodh only for convenience. ) apBto 50 (B) Saphel: t h e one occurrence of a Saphel in BA is undoubtedly from an original Pe Waw conjugation (cf.

As noted previously, the direct object may (or may not) be introduced by the preposition b. A verb which has more than one subject may be either singular or plural (whether it precedes or whether it follows its subjects). 3. The Pael: the Pael: The regular (strong) verb of BA is conjugated as follows in Singular Plural Perfect Imperfect Person Perfect Imperfect an? ) lana para- nari? ) nan? nan? ) pnana rianan nan? ) wan? ) nana; (with suffix) nian? ) -an? (fem. ) ian? (masc. ) The Pael Participles are [note that, except for the masculine singular, context alone determines whether the participle is active or passive]: 34 ansa (masc.

B) Haphel (and Aphel): t h e only verb with this kind of double weakness comes from t h e root nm; in t h e Haphel (or Aphel) the nun is assimilated, but the laryngeal cannot be doubled as a result of the assimilation; because the laryngeal is a n, there is no lengthening of the vowel in compensation (see I 8). ) nnn [an Aphel form] Imperative: (sing) nns [an Aphel form] Participle: (plural) pnnna [a Haphel form] 3. Verbs Pe Nun and Lamedh Laryngeal: Once again, all the rules of both of these particular classes apply t o this class of doubly weak verbs.

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