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By Chester A. Arnold

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Sporocarpon, Focrstia, and Parka are on an approximate evolutionary Nematophytales in that they have cutinized surface tissues and firm-walled spores. Being cellular instead of tubular, they probably level with the belong to a distinct though related group. Much of our knowledge of ancient algae has been gained from studies have been formed wholly or in part from the of limestones believed to activities of these organisms. no traces In instances (as in stromatolites) and in such cases, the many of the cellular structure are retained, algal origin is inferred from the general resemblance of the limestones to those in process of formation at the present time.

The filaments appear to have grown perpendicular to growths of arched layers. the surface in Gouldina but parallel to it in Shermanophycus. A cross AN INTRODUCTION TO PALEOBOTANY 58 section of Gouldina shows a series of concentric or eccentric layers that farther out from the center (Fig. 24). Calyp- become more undulating is an interesting form in that it produces wartlike crusts on It sometimes forms a thick sheath around casts logs and other objects. of Calamites and other stems. tophycus Another notable occurrence of algal limestones is in the middle Eocene Green River formation of northwestern Colorado and adjacent Some of the largest reefs extend over parts of Wyoming and Utah.

Well preserved mycelium and spores have been found within the tissues of the very ancient vascular Throughout the Devonian and Carboniferous there is plants (Fig. 18). of fungous activity within plant tissues although the actual remains of the organisms are seldom present. Fungous spores and mycelia resembling those of Recent Phycomycetes ample evidence occur in the tissues of Carboniferous plants. Some of these have been described under such names^ as Urophly elites, which has been found parasitic upon Alethopteris, and Zygosporites, which resembles a mucor.

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