By John Bickford
Delivering a broad-based overview of the standards affecting the layout, meeting and behavior of bolted joints and their elements in all industries, this paintings info numerous meeting recommendations in addition to particular failure modes and methods for his or her avoidance. This version gains fabric on: the touch stresses among bolt head or nut face and the joint; thread varieties, sequence and sessions; the stiffness of raised face flange joints; and extra.
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Additional resources for An Introduction to the Design and Behavior of Bolted Joints
More information on numerical optimization can be found in . , bone and soft tissue). Note that the above theory needs some modiﬁcation in the presence of a substance with an observable K-edge in the energy range [Emin , Emax ]. In that case Eqs. 13) have to be extended with a third component and corresponding coefﬁcients aK and a3 respectively. This yields a third unknown A3 in Eq. 16) and, hence, requires a multienergy approach with at least three different measurements . The original image is then separated into three instead of two basis images, the third being an image of the substance with K-edge.
The physics of X-rays, their (a) production, and interactions with tissue have already been discussed in Chapter 2. ” Röntgen received the ﬁrst Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901. Reconstruction of a function from its projections was ﬁrst formulated by Johann Radon in 1917. Before the invention of computed tomography, other kinds of tomography existed. 3(a)) The X-ray source and ﬁlm move at constant speed in opposite directions. Under these circumstances, one section of the patient (plane P1 –P2 ) is always projected at the same position on the ﬁlm, whereas the rest of the body is averaged out.
Note that pθ (r) is zero for |r| ≥ FOV/2. pθ (r) can be measured for θ ranging from 0 to 2π . Because concurrent beams coming from opposite sides theoretically yield identical measurements, attenuation proﬁles acquired at opposite sides contain redundant information. Therefore, as far as parallelbeam geometry is concerned, it is sufﬁcient to measure pθ (r) for θ ranging from 0 to π . 6). 7(a) and (b). The corresponding ∗ Dual-energy CT is a recent development and is introduced on p. 48. 7(c)) has a sinusoidal shape, which explains the origin of the name sinogram.