By R. Hendrick
This ebook relies largely on fieldwork that I performed in Brittany and Wales in 1983 and 1985. i'm grateful for a Fulbright Award for examine in Western Europe and a college improvement Award from the college of North Carolina that funded that fieldwork. lowe a much less tangible, yet no much less actual, debt to Steve Anderson, G. M. Awbery, Steve Harlow and Jim McCloskey whose paintings in the beginning sparked my curiosity, and led me to adopt this undertaking. i need to thank Joe Emonds and Alec Marantz who learn parts of bankruptcy three and five. i'm rather thankful although to Kathleen Flanagan, Frank Heny and nameless referees who learn a dyslexic and schizophrenic manuscript, delivering me with criticisms that superior this ultimate model significantly. The Welsh nationalist neighborhood in Aberstwyth and its Breton coun terpart in Quimper helped make the time I spent in Wales and Brittany efficient. i'm indebted to Thomas Davies, Partick Favreau, Lukian Kergoat, Sue Rhys, John Williams and Beatrice between others for sharing their wisdom in their languages with me. Catrin Davies and Martial Menard have been specifically sufferer and valuable. with no their guidance this paintings might were infinitely poorer. i'm hopeful that this e-book can help stimulate extra curiosity within the Celtic languages and tradition, and support, even in a small method, these in Wales and Brittany who fight to maintain their language and tradition strong.
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Extra resources for Anaphora in Celtic and Universal Grammar
In (39a) the adjunct reflexive is permissible because it finds an antecedent in an argument position. Examples (39b) and (d) are ungrammatical because there is no antecedent for the reflexive. As (39c) shows, the position of the reflexive in (39a) is not an independent argument position but is dependent on its antecedent: other NPs are unable to substitute for it. In this respect the adjunct reflexives differ from the argument reflexive, which does fill an argument position. Notice that the reflexive in (40a) occupies an argument position: brifo 'hurt' is a transitive verb requiring a post-verbal argument, as (40b) shows.
L Thus, while (3a) is marginally accepted, (3b, c) and (4) are recognized as more natural or idiomatic by native speakers. (3) a. Emaon 0 lenn ul levr brezhonek. be-PRES-1SNG prt read a book Breton I am reading a Breton book. b. 0 lenn ul levr brezhonek emaon. PRT read a book Breton be-PRES-1SNG I am reading a Breton book. c. VI levr brezhonek emaon 0 lenn. a book Breton be-PRES-1SNG PRT read I am reading a Breton book. (4) a. Ar paotr a wele Mona e Kemper. the boy PRT see-1MPERF in The boy saw Mona in Kemper.
64) Warc'hoaz e weIHe/de. tomorrow PRT see-FUT-2SNG-you You will see tomorrow. What is interesting about such structures is that the pronoun te or de 'you' is occurring with the overt AGR on the verb. At first glance, sentences like (64) appear to falsify the generalization in Section 2 that Breton overt agreement does not co-occur with overt pronouns. I think that the analysis appropriate here is that the pronoun is an affix just as in the case of the Welsh affixed auxiliary pronouns. Indeed, traditional grammars such as Hernon (197 5b) are particularly insistent about the use of the hyphen in such examples to signal that the pronoun forms part of the preceding word.