By Barend J. van Royen, Ben A. C. Dijkmans
The 1st and purely interdisciplinary advisor devoted to the topic, this reference leads readers during the pathogenic, genetic, scientific, and biomechanical elements of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and addresses concerns with regards to results overview, clinical therapy, surgical issues, sickness administration, and genetics.
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Additional info for Ankylosing Spondylitis: Diagnosis and Management
4. Chalmers IM. Ankylosing spondylitis in African Blacks. Arthritis Rheum 1980; 23(12): 1366–1370. 5. Stein M, Davis P, Emmanuel J, West G. The spondyloarthropathies in Zimbabwe: a clinical and immunogenetic proﬁle. J Rheumatol 1990; 17(10):1337–1339. 6. Adebajo AO. Spondyloarthropathies in sub-Saharan Africa. J Rheumatol 1991; 18(7): 1115. 7. Roberts-Thomson RA, Roberts-Thomson PJ. Rheumatic disease and the Australian aborigine. Ann Rheum Dis 1999; 58(5):266–270. 8. Dawkins RL, Owen ET, Cheah PS, Christiansen FT, Calin AA, Gofton JP.
Syndesmophytes and calciﬁcated discs. Source: From Ref. 51. The History of Ankylosing Spondylitis 17 Figure 10 X-ray picture ankle (A) and forefeet (B) Cosimo il Vecchio. Ankylosis tibia, ﬁbula and tarsus bones. Source: From Ref. 51. of juvenile chronic arthritis), and arthritis associated with inﬂammatory bowel disease (56–58). In 1991, the European Spondyloarthropathy Study Group (ESSG) modiﬁed this disease grouping to accommodate undifferentiated forms of spondyloarthropathy (59). Among the many landmarks in the history of AS and its relationship to the other spondyloarthropathies, perhaps the most important were the revelations of an infectious etiology and a genetic predisposition to AS.
Other MHC Genes Various genes within the MHC class II region have been investigated due to their possible interaction with B27, including LMP2 and LMP7 (large multi-functional proteases), and TAP1 and TAP2, which are involved in antigen processing and peptide transport, respectively. LMP2 and LMP7 have been reported to be associated with acute anterior uveitis or extraspinal disease in AS patients in some studies, but not in others (117–122). TAP1 and TAP2 variants have been reported to have either marginal or no association with spondyloarthritis (122–124).