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By Stuart Turner

1987 Springer. Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences 12. Lg.8vo., 393pp., wraps. the rest lessen on reduce fore-edge, VG. moderate conceal put on; no proprietor marks.

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I, 113-119 (1985). 6) W. Gurtner, GPS papers presented by the Astronomical Institute of the Berne in the Year 1985, Mitteilungen der Satellitenbeobachtungsstation I0, University of Berne (1983). University Zimmerwald, of No. M. Welsch I n s t i t u t fur Geod~sie, Universit~t der Bundeswehr MUnchen, D-8014 Neubiberg ABSTRACT The combination of t e r r e s t r i a l and s a t e l l i t e aided network observations requires hybrid models of two kinds: a hybrid functional model and a stochastic model being able to process the heterogene~ ous observations a p p r o p r i a t e l y .

It is interesting (but not surprising), that the largest differences occur in height - hopefully surface weather data and water vapour radiometer data will improve the situation somewhat. e e REFERENCES I) G. A. Davidson, R. Langley, oretical System and R. Santerre, using Carrier Phase Difference Observations, Dept. Technical Report No. i09, University of New Brunswick, 2) G. Beutler, W. Gurtner, I. Bauersima, Positioning with GPS, Vol. i, 99-111, 3) G. Beutler, P. E. Wells, Some the of The- Global Positioning Surveying Engineering Canada (1984).

This is i l l u s t r a t e d in the f o l l o w i n g (see Appendix A): = HT%H + Hs%H : (19) H(T% + ~ % ) . Equation 19 shows t h a t the i n t e r n a l covariance m a t r i x of the combined network can be achieved e i t h e r by the sum of the i n t e r n a l covariance matrices of the t e r r e s t r i a l and sat- ellite Due to networks or by the S-transformed sum o f the external covariance matrices. the idempotence of H the same is v a l i d i f an external covariance m a t r i x is combined with an i n t e r n a l one.

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