By R Muniappan; et al
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Human actions have contributed to the distribution of many plant, animal and microbial species to components of the area the place they don't seem to be local. This unfold of alien species could have devastating results on local biodiversity. Examples comprise alien mammals eating local plants and alien bugs spreading viruses, in addition to crops akin to water hyacinth, which has prompted significant difficulties to waterways whilst brought from South the United States.
First introduced in 1998 as "A booklet in Six Parts," this enormous sequence is now whole. the ultimate quantity contains taxonomic and nomenclatural alterations affecting species lined within the past types, besides additions and adjustments.
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Cassava mealybug infested shoot Pests of Cucurbits 25 (Epidinocarsis) lopezi and the coccinellids Diomus sp. , 2003). Of these, introduction of the parasitoid A. , 2010). Other major pests are: Coconut scale, Aspidiotus destructor (See Pests of Papaya) Spiraling whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus (See Pests of Guava) Spider mites, Tetranychus spp. 4 Pests of Cucurbits (Cucurbitaceae) The family Cucurbitaceae, also known as the gourd family, includes many crops that are predominantly grown in the tropics such as pumpkin, bitter melon, ribbed gourd, snake gourd, watermelon, cucumber, squash, cantaloupe, and others.
Newly hatched grubs are pale yellow and turn orange-yellow when full-grown. Grubs bore into roots, and the larval stage lasts for 18–35 days. Pupation takes place in the soil within a cell. Pupae are elongate and pale yellow, and the pupal stage ranges from 4–14 days. 3). 26 Pests of Major Vegetable Crops Fig. 1. Adult beetle of Aulacophora similis Fig. 2. Adult beetle of Aulacophora flavomarginata Fig. 3. Adult beetle of Aulacophora sp. on a melon shoot Damage: Adults cause serious damage by feeding on leaves and flowers.
And others. A number of parasitoid species also are important natural biological controls. During rainy weather, entomogenous fungi also infect these aphids. Other major pests are: Leaf miners: Pea leaf miner, Liriomyza huidobrensis; Serpentine leaf miner, L. sativae; stone leek leaf miner, L. chinensis; Chrysanthemum leaf miner, L. , Convolvulaceae) Sweet potato originated in South America and is an important food crop of poor farmers of the Old and New World tropics. China produces the most sweet potatoes but India and Indonesia are also major producers in Asia.